The History Of Weather Modification, How Far Back Does It Go?

Geoengineering Watch
by Dane Wigington

Much of this information has been adapted and reformatted from Jim Lee’s Radiation Database, Harold Saive’s GeoEngineering Exposed, and Jeane Manning & Dr. Nick Begich’s book “Angels Don’t Play This HAARP”. I offer many thanks to these researchers for their tireless efforts and impeccably researched work.

Cartoon from The Reno Evening Gazette, 5th Sept. 1891

This timeline focuses on the development and implementation of weather modification technologies in English Speaking countries – especially the USA — because that’s the language I speak and the territory I live in. Several other countries –notably Russia and China — have developed similarly powerful weather modification capabilities over the same time frame, but delving deep into that history is beyond the scope of this paper or the translation abilities of its author.

This is certainly an incomplete history because weather modification, weather warfare, and geoengineering are all shrouded by disinformation and secrecy. Everything mentioned here is true to the extent that we can trust “reputable” government and scientific sources to tell us the truth.

1877: Harvard geologist Nathaniel Shaler proposed channeling the warm Kuroshio Current through the Bering Strait to raise temperatures in the Polar region by 30 degrees. This is the first documented modern proposal of a climate modification proposal.

1886-8: Nikola Tesla invents system of Alternating Current electricity and electrical grid transmission system. As the 60-pulse-per-second (60 hertz) AC power grids spread over the land, Earth’s resonance frequency will eventually dance to a different beat than her usual 7.83 hertz.

1887: The Atlantic Monthly features an article called “How To Change the North American Climate” which proposes geoengineering by rerouting warm ocean currents to melt the Northern Hemisphere’s Polar Ice Cap.

1889: Visionary writer Jules Verne fancifully writes about engineering Earth’s climate in “The Purchase Of The North Pole”. Verne writes (fiction, of course) that the an anonymous bidder from the United States purchased large tracts of the Arctic and then used a gigantic cannon built into the flanks of Mt. Kilimanjaro in an attempt to tilt the Earth’s axis and thus render the Arctic inhabitable. The plan went horribly wrong. Like other books of his later years, in this novel Verne tempers his love of science and engineering with a good dose of irony about the potential for harmful abuse and the fallibility of human endeavors. climate.

1890-1892: US Congress funds rainfall enhancement experiments overseen by General Robert St. George Dyrenfoth. Conducted in Texas these experiments utilized balloons and explosives testing the theory that explosions in the atmosphere would introduce energy, friction, and cloud condensation nuclei (soot from the explosions) which could potentially increase rainfall. Experiment discontinued due to apparent failure of this method.

1900: Nikola Tesla applies for patent for a device to transmit Electrical Energy “Through the Natural Mediums”. U.S. Patent #787,412 issued in 1905. Wireless energy transmission subsequently suppressed by powerful business interests keen on profiting from a wired electical grids construction, maintenance, and metering. Wireless electricity would be much harder to “meter” and thus charging individuals’ consumption would be harder to control.

Stiger Vortex Rainmaking Canons for “cloud shooting”. 1902

Stiger Vortex Rainmaking Canons for “cloud shooting”.  1902 – See more at:

1904: US government begins using airplanes to conduct upper air atmospheric research. The Wright Brothers historic first flight took place in 1903. Uncle Sam didn’t wait long to put their amazing invention to work in weather research.

1909: US Weather Bureau begins its program of weather balloon observations.

1910-1914: The cereal manufacturer, C. W. Post of Texas, experimented extensively with the concussion method of rainmaking. Inspired by an occasional rain fall, Post optimistically predicted that rainmaking would one day replace irrigation. Post remembered reading tales of the deluges that occurred just after major battles in the Napoleonic Wars, and old soldiers who had fought in the American Civil War recounted rumors that heavy cannon fire seemed to bring rainfall.

C.W. Post

In Post’s first rain experiment in 1910, he attached two pounds of dynamite to a kite, flew it into the clouds and ignited it. Too dangerous, he concluded. On the high elevations of the Caprock, he tried igniting 14-pound bundles of dynamite spaced 50 feet apart on the ground and set off at 10-minute intervals. Post’s most successful “rain battle” blasted 24,000 pounds of explosives. By some accounts, a refreshing rain fell.

Post’s attempts to tweak the weather in his favor continued through 1913. Reportedly, he spent more than $50,000 on rain battles and claimed he enticed seven showers from the sky in 13 attempts. His detractors insisted that the rain battles occurred during the time of year when natural storms were most likely to happen anyway.

1912: New York Engineer and Industrialist, Carroll Livingston Riker proposes building a 200 mile jetty off of Newfoundland to increase the Gulf Stream’s flow into to the Arctic Basin with the added benefit that it would “shift” the axis of planet earth. The New York Times characterizes the proposal as “amazing”… but not insane.

Published: September 29, 1912 © The New York Times Click image for full PDF article

Charles Hatfield

1916: Hatfield and the great flood of San Diego. Charles Hatfield read about “pluviculture” and began to develop his own methods for producing rain. By 1902 he had created a secret mixture of 23 chemicals in large galvanized evaporating tanks that, he claimed, attracted rain. Hatfield called himself a “moisture accelerator”.

In 1915 the San Diego City Council approached Hatfield to produce rain to fill the Morena Dam reservoir. Hatfield built a 20-foot (6 m) tower beside Lake Morena and was ready early in the New Year.

Published: September 29, 1912  © The New York Times Click image for full PDF article – See more at:

On January 5, 1916 heavy rain began – and grew gradually heavier day by day. Dry riverbeds filled to the point of flooding. Worsening floods destroyed bridges, marooned trains and cut phone cables – not to mention flooding homes and farms. Two dams overflowed. Rain stopped January 20 but resumed two days later. On January 27 Lower Otay Dam broke, increasing the devastation and reportedly causing about 20 deaths.

Charles Hatfield

Hatfield talked to the press on February 4 and said that the damage was not his fault and that the city should have taken adequate precautions. Hatfield had fulfilled the requirements of his contract – filling the reservoir – but the city council refused to pay the money unless Hatfield would accept liability for damages; there were already claims worth $3.5 million.

1917: Norwegian meteorologists begin experimenting with air mass analysis techniques which revolutionize the practice of meteorology.

1924: Confirmation that radio waves bounce off ionosphere (an electrically-charged layer composed of high-energy ions starting at an altitude of 50 kilometers).

Space Mirrors: Foreseen as The Most Dreadful Weapon long ago.

1929: Hermann Oberth, German-Hungarian physicist and engineer, proposes building giant mirrors on a space station to focus the Sun’s radiation on Earth’s surface, making the far North habitable and freeing sea lanes to Siberian harbors.

1930s: Tesla announces “death ray” invention.

1935: US hurricane warning service is established. The Smithsonian Institution begins making long-range weather forecasts based on solar cycles. Floating automatic weather instruments mounted on buoys begin collecting marine weather data.

1938: Scientist proposes to light up night sky by electron gyrotron heating from a powerful transmitter.

1939: Radiosondes (weather balloons) replace all US Military and US Weather Bureau aircraft weather observations.

1943: Tesla dies and the US government seizes and classifies all of his papers.

1945: Atomic bomb tests begin, culminating in the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan that same year. An estimated 40,000 nuclear weapons tests (and resulting electromagnetic pulses) follow.

1945: Julian Huxley, biologist and Secretary-General of United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 1946-48, proposes exploding atomic bombs at an appropriate height above the polar regions to raise the temperature of the Arctic Ocean and warm the entire climate of the northern temperate zone.

1946: May, 1946 issue of Mechanix Illustrated features several arctic-warming geoengineering proposals. One “brave new idea” was proposed by Julian Huxley, then the Secretary-General of UNESCO, that would detonate atomic bombs to warm the Arctic. Julian’s brother Aldous Huxley is the famous futurist writer/philosopher from that era.

1946: Researchers at General Electric develop methods of cloud seeding using dry ice and silver iodide. Vincent Schaefer discovered that dry ice could be used to seed clouds. A month later Dr. Bernard Vonnegut (older brother of writer Kurt Vonnegut) discovered that silver iodide was a more effective way to seed clouds. Since 1946 an ever-growing number of governments and business interests around the world have used silver iodide cloud seeding to enhance precipitation, limit hail storms, clear fog, and in experiments seeking to steer/strengthen/weaken storms.

1947: The US Department of Defence (DoD) conducts Project Cirrus in which about 200 pounds of dry ice is dropped into a hurricane heading back out to sea, which for whatever reason, abruptly changed course and slammed into Savannah, Georgia. The public blamed the government for this catastrophe, so future storm modification experiments took place more secretly. Once again, we see a brand new technology being used in an attempt to alter the weather in massive way. 1952 Project Cirrus summary PDF here.

1948: Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Studies begins research into use of a computer for weather forecasting.

Late 1940′s: Dr. Wilhelm Reich develops weather modification techniques based on Orgone energy (aka, the Tao, Chi, or Life Force). Dr. Reich shares his work with the US DoD.

1949-1952: The UK runs weather modification experiments under the name of Project Cumulus.

1951-1953: US DoD conducts the Artificial Cloud Nucleation Project (AEN), a large-scale weather modification project in Washington.

1952: W.O. Schumann identifies 7.83 hertz resonant frequency of the earth, now called the Schumann Resonance.

1952: US White House Department of Weather Modification formed.

1952-1954: Project SCUD: US Gov. experiment with cloud seeding over the East Coast of the USA.

1953: President Eisenhower creates the U.S. Advisory Committee on Weather Control.

1953-1954: Scientists at New York University seed nineteen cyclones.

1954: The Weather Bureau, Navy, Air Force, MIT’s Institute for Advanced Study, and the University of Chicago form a Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit using an IBM 701 computer. The first radar specifically designed for meteorological use, the AN/CPS-9, is unveiled by the Air Weather Service, USAF.

1956: US Weather Bureau initiates a National Hurricane Research Project.

1958: Van Allen radiation belts discovered (zones of charged particles trapped in earth’s magnetic field 2,000+ miles up). Project Argus: U.S. Navy explodes 3 nuclear missiles in the recently discovered Van Allen belt. VA Belt violently disrupted with nuclear detonations via long range missiles. It sure didn’t take them long to start meddling with a natural system they just discovered!

1958: Chief White House Adviser on Weather Modification, Captain Howard T. Orville, said the Department of Defense was studying “ways to manipulate the charges of the Earth and sky and so affect the weather by using an electronic beam to ionise or de-ionise the atmosphere over a given area.” Could this be Nikola Tesla’s wireless electricity “death ray” being experimented with 54 years ago!

1958: Senator Lyndon B. Johnson (future US President) made a prophetic opening statement at a Hearings before the Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services:

“From space, the masters of infinity would have the power to control the earth’s weather, to cause drought and flood, to change the tides and raise the levels of the sea, to divert the gulf stream and change temperate climates to frigid. There is something more important than the ultimate weapon. And that is the ultimate position. The position of total control over the Earth that lies somewhere in outer space… In essence, the Soviet Union has appraised control of space as a goal of such consequence that achievement of such control has been made a first aim of national policy. [In contrast], our decisions, more often than not, have been made within the framework of the Government’s annual budget. Against this view, we now have on record the appraisal of leaders in the field of science, respected men of unquestioned competence, whose valuation of what control of outer space means renders irrelevant the bookkeeping concerns of fiscal officers.”

1958: M. Gorodsky, Soviet engineer and mathematician, and Valentin Cherenkov, Soviet meteorologist, propose placing a ring of metallic potassium particles into Earth’s polar orbit to diffuse light reaching Earth and increase solar radiation to thaw the permanently frozen soil of Russia, Canada, and Alaska and melt polar ice. Once again, we see proposals to melt the Arctic. Also worth noting, these scientists proposed adding metallics to the atmosphere to HEAT the planet. Modern Geoengineers claim adding metallics to the atmosphere will COOL the planet. What do you think the real impact of atmospheric aerosol metallic particles is? Does metal get hot when the sun hits it? Will hot metal transmit heat to the air around it? Think about it.

1958: Arkady Markin, Soviet engineer, proposes that the United States and Soviet Union build a gigantic dam across the Bering Strait and use nuclear power–driven propeller pumps to push the warm Pacific current into the Atlantic by way of the Arctic Sea. Arctic ice would melt, and the Siberian and North American frozen areas would become temperate and productive.

1958: Russian oil engineer, P.M. Borisov proposes melting the Arctic and Greenland icecaps by spreading black coal dust on the ice, creating cloud-cover across the poles to trap heat, and by diverting warm Atlantic waters into the polar regions. This scheme was taken seriously by Soviet climatologists. Two conferences were held in Leningrad in the early 1960′s following an initial meeting in Moscow of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1959.

1958: Atlantic Richfield geologist L.M. Natland, proposes exploding up to 100 underground nuclear bombs to mine the Alberta Tar Sands. Heat from the detonations was expected to boil the bitumen deposits, reducing their viscosity to the point that standard drilling operations could be used. The plan was encouraged by US efforts to find “peaceful uses” for atomic energy. The project was approved in 1959 but the Canadian government reversed their decision in 1962 and declared that Canada was opposed to all forms of nuclear testing. In 2012 the Canadian Tar Sands are again an issue of international concern.

1960: The world’s first weather satellite, the polar-orbiting TIROS I, successfully launches from the Air Force Missile Test Center at Cape Canaveral, Fla., on April 1. This was followed by the launch of TIROS II on November 11. The Weather Bureau and NASA invite scientists from 21 nations to participate in the analysis of weather data gathered by TIROS II. In cooperation with the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Weather Bureau meteorologists issue first advisories on air pollution potential over the eastern United States.

1960-1961: Project Skyfire begins. Project Stormfury also begins in 1961 (and ends 22 years later). Both are studies into lightning and hurricane manipulation.

1960: Series of weather disasters begin.

1960′s: In Wisconsin, US Navy Project Sanguine lays ELF antennae.

1961: Project Skywater – Bureau of Reclamation (water) cloud seeding project funded by Congress.

1961: Copper needles dumped into ionosphere as “telecommunications shield”.

1961: Scientists propose artificial ion cloud experiments. In 1960′s the dumping of chemicals (barium powder, etc.) from satellites/rockets began.

1961-62: Soviets and USA blast many electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the atmosphere. 300 megatons of nuclear devices detonated deplete ozone layer by an estimated 4%.

1962: Launch of Canadian satellites and start of stimulating plasma resonances by antennas within the space plasma.

1962: Harry Wexler (March 15, 1911- 1962) was an MIT graduate and PhD in meteorology. Wexler had been researching the link connecting chlorine and bromine compounds to the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layers, but died of a heart attack while on vacation in Woods Hole, Mass. Wexler had already accepted an invitation to deliver a lecture entitled “The Climate of Earth and Its Modifications” at the University of Maryland Space Research and Technology Institute.

1963: Polar-orbiting weather satellite TIROS III is launched with automatic picture transmission capability, eventually to provide continuous cloud images to over 100 nations.

1965: US President’s Science Advisory Committee Proposal: Investigated injecting condensation or freezing nuclei into the atmosphere to counteract the effects of increasing carbon dioxide.

1966, June, Report to ICAS by ICAS Select Panel – Chair, Gordon JF MacDonald. “Future plans of Federal Agencies in Weather and Climate Modification.”

1966, Nov, report from NASA to ICAS (Independent Comm. for Atmospheric Sciences of the Nat. Academy of Sciences, NAS) was first step in establishing a National Weather Modification program

1966: Gordon J. F. MacDonald publishes military ideas on environmental engineering. MacDonald was Chair of the ICAS Select Panel on Weather and Climate Modification.

1966: Weather officials from 25 nations meet in London for the First International Clean Air Congress. The National Meteorological Center introduces a computer numerical model capable of making sea level predictions as accurate as those made manually.

1966: US Federal Government spends about $7 million on projects including precipitation modification; hail suppression; fog and cloud dissipation; lighting modification; severe storm modification, and “other.” The Office of Naval Research sponsors major research in tornado modification, hurricane steering and cyclone manipulation.

1967-1972: US Military conducts covert weather warfare over Vietnam called Operation Popeye, to extend the monsoon season over Laos, specifically areas of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The operation seeded clouds with silver iodide, resulting in the targeted areas seeing an extension of the monsoon period an average of 30 to 45 days. As the continuous rainfall slowed down the truck traffic, it was considered relatively successful. The 54th Weather Reconnaissance Squadron carried out the operation to “make mud, not war.”

1968: Moscow scientists tell the West that Soviets pinpointed which pulsed magnetic field frequencies help mental and physiological functions and which do harm.

1968: Gordon J. F. MacDonald authored a chapter in “Unless Peace Comes” where he correctly predicted that future means of obtaining national objectives by force hinges on man’s ability to control and manipulate the environment of planet Earth. MacDonald was Chair of the ICAS Select Panel on Weather and Climate Modification.

“When achieved, this power over his environment will provide man with a new force capable of doing great and indiscriminate damage. Our present primitive understanding of deliberate environmental change makes it difficult to imagine a world in which geophysical warfare is practised. Such a world might be one in which nuclear weapons were effectively banned and the weapons of mass destruction were those of environmental catastrophe. As I will argue, these weapons are peculiarly suited for covert or secret wars.”

1968: Gordon J. F. MacDonald writes as follows in “Toward the Year 2018″, p. 34): ”By the year 2018, technology will make available to the leaders of the major nations a variety of techniques for
conducting secret warfare, of which only a bare minimum of the security forces need be appraised. One nation may attack a competitor covertly by bacteriological means, thoroughly weakening the population (though with a minimum of fatalities) before taking over with its own overt armed forces. Alternatively, techniques of weather modification could be employed to produce prolonged periods of drought or storm, thereby weakening a nation’s capacity and forcing it to accept the demands of the competitor.”

1969: Hail Suppression Data from Western North Dakota, 1969–1972 South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City.

1970: The Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA) becomes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with Dr. Robert White assuming the role of its first administrator. The U.S. Weather Bureau becomes the National Weather Service (NWS).

1970: US National Security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski (who is still very active in 2012) publishes “Between Two Ages: America’s Role in the Technetronic Era” containing the following informative quotes:

“Not only have new weapons been developed but some of the basic concepts of geography and strategy have been fundamentally altered; space and weather control have replaced Suez or Gibraltar as key elements of strategy… future developments may well include automated or manned space warships, deepsea installations, chemical and biological weapons, death rays, and still other forms of warfare—even the weather may be tampered with.”

1971: The US and Russia undertake a joint research venture named POLEX, Polar Experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program.

1972: First reports on “ionospheric heater” experiments with high frequency radio waves, at Arecibo. 100-megawatt heater in Norway built later in decade which can change conductivity of auroral ionosphere.

1972: Potential Value of Satellite Cloud Pictures in Weather Mod. Projects – Report prepared for NASA by Institute of Atmospheric Sciences South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Rapid City.

1973: There are more than 700 scientists and engineers in the U.S. whose major occupation is weather modification.

1973: Documentation that launch of Skylab and associated rocket exhaust gases `’halved the total electron content of the ionosphere for three hours.

1974: US DoD tells Project Stormfury researchers to conduct “more field experiments on tropical cyclones at every opportunity.”

1973: Recommendations for study of Project Sanguine’s biological effects denied by Navy.

1974: United Nations General Assembly bans environmental warfare. ENMOD

1974: High-frequency experiments at Plattesville, Colorado; Arecibo, Puerto Rico; and, Armidale, New South Wales heat “bottom side of ionosphere”.

1974: Experiments airglow brightened by hitting oxygen atoms in ionosphere with accelerated electrons.

1975: The first “hurricane hunter” Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) is launched into orbit; these satellites with their early and close tracking of hurricanes, greatly reduce the loss of life from such storms.

1975: Evaluation of Monte Carlo Tests of Effectiveness of Cloud Seeding on Growing Season Rainfall in North Dakota.

1975: Stanford professor Robert Helliwell reports that Very Low Frequency (VLF) from power lines is altering the ionosphere.

1975: U. S. Senator Gaylord Nelson forces Navy to release research showing that ELF transmissions can alter human blood chemistry.

1975: Pell Senate Subcommittee urges that weather and climate modification work be overseen by civilian agency answerable to U.S. Congress. No action taken.

1975: Soviets begin pulsing “Woodpecker” ELF waves, at key brainwave rhythms. Eugene, Oregon, one of locations where people were particularly affected. Russia begins generating powerful electromagnetic transmissions which are dubbed ‘The Russian Woodpecker’ by western ham-radio operators.

1976: Drs. Susan Bawin and W. Ross Adey show nerve cells affected by Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields.

1977; Cesare Marchetti, Italian industrial physicist; Coined the term “geoengineering” and proposed sequestering CO2 in the deep ocean.

1977: Environmental Impacts of Precipitation Management – Inferences to Project Skywater

1977-1978: The UN Environmental Modification Convention (ENMOD), formally the Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques prohibits the military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques. It opened for signature on 18 May 1977 and entered into force on 5 October 1978. The Convention bans weather warfare, which is the use of weather modification techniques for the purposes of inducing damage or destruction.

1979: US NWS Nested Grid Model (NGM) becomes operational; a Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) developed. AFOS Computer system is deployed, connecting all Weather Service forecast offices. AFOS is the most ambitious computer network created at the time, setting records for volume of data and number of entry points while supporting full range of other capabilities.

1979: Launch of NASA’s third High-Energy Astrophysical Observatory causes large-scale, artificially-induced depletion in the ionosphere. Plasma hole caused by “rapid chemical processes” between rocket exhaust and ozone layer.” …“ionosphere was significantly depleted over a horizontal distance of 300 km for some hours.”

1979: Annotated Bibliography of Predictor Variables for Weather Modification Applications – Funded by NSF Grant ATM 79-05007 pub., Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana.

1983: Project Stormfury ends after 22 years of experimentation into predicting and modifying hurricanes.

1983; Stanford Penner, A. M. Schneider, and E. M. Kennedy, American physicists; Suggested introducing small particles into the atmosphere to reflect more sunlight back into space.

1985: Bernard J. Eastlund applies for patent “Method and Apparatus for Altering a Region in the Earth’s Atmosphere, ionosphere and/or Magnetosphere,” (First of 3 Eastlund patents assigned to ARCO Power Technologies Inc.)

1986: US Navy Project Henhouse duplicates Delgado (Madrid) experiment — very low-level, very-low-frequency pulsed magnetic fields harm chick embryos.

1987: Bernard Eastlund authors US Patent # 4686605 (and two others) in which he references Tesla’s work as a source of historical contribution. It is entitled:Method and Apparatus for Altering a Region in the Earth’s Atmosphere, Ionosphere, and/or Magnetosphere. Part of it reads: ”Weather modification is possible by… altering upper atmospheric wind patterns or altering solar absorption patterns by constructing one or more plumes of particles which will act as a lens or focusing device.” Years later he admits in an interview to having approached the Pentagon with his ideas but says he is not at liberty to disclose the outcome. His device would allow a concentration of one watt per cubic centimeter compared to others only able to deliver about one millionth of one watt.

1987: In the later part of the decade the U.S. begins network of Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN) towers, each to generate Very Low Frequency (VLF) waves for defense purposes .

1987-92: Other APTI scientists build on Eastlund patents for development of new weapon capabilities.

1988: John H. Martin, American oceanographer; proposes dispersing a relatively small amount of iron into appropriate areas of the ocean to create large algae blooms that could take in enough atmospheric carbon to reverse the greenhouse effect and cool Earth.

1989: Eight year plan for the modernization and restructuring of the US National Weather Service announced. The $4.5 billion overhaul of the agency lasts a decade and changes the way the agency operates To modernize its operations, the NWS developed and implemented five major technologies: 1) Automated Surface Observing System, or ASOS, which replaced manual weather observations, 2) Next Generation Weather Radar, or NEXRAD, a network of advanced Doppler radars, 3) A new series of satellites that provided improved, all-weather data for longer-term forecasting, 4) Advanced computer systems that increased the computing power to support National Centers tenfold, 5) Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System, or AWIPS, which allowed communication among forecast offices and distribution of centrally collected data as well as offered field forecasters access to the data provided by the other new technologies.

1989; James T. Early, American climatologist suggested deflecting sunlight by 2 percent with a $1 trillion to $10 trillion “space shade” placed in Earth orbit.

1990; John Latham, British cloud physicist; Proposed seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with seawater droplets to increase their reflectivity and longevity.

1990: The National Meteorological Center procures and installs a supercomputer, the Cray Y-MP8, to run higher resolution and more sophisticated numerical weather production models. The National Weather Service contracts full scale production with the Unisys Corporation for production of 165 Next General Radar (NEXRAD) units and more than 300 display subsystems. The explosive growth of technology led to the development of NEXRAD, a joint project of the Departments of Commerce, Transportation and Defense to meet their common radar needs.

1992; NAS Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy proposed adding more dust to naturally occurring stratospheric dust to increase the net reflection of sunlight.

1993: Work begins on the HAARP research station. (Which is only one of several such facilities in the US and in other countries)

1994: US Air Force reveals its Spacecast 2020 master plan which includes weather control. Scientists have experimented with weather control since the 1940s, but Spacecast 2020 noted that “using environmental modification techniques to destroy, damage or injure another state [is] prohibited”. Having said that, the Air Force claimed that advances in technology “compels a re-examination of this sensitive and potentially risky topic.”

1994: Military contractor E-Systems buys APTI, holder of Eastlund patents and contract to build biggest ionospheric heater in world (HAARP).

1994: Congress freezes funding on HAARP until planners increase emphasis on earth-penetrating tomography uses, for nuclear counter proliferation efforts. (Oil and gas exploration)

1994-6: Testing of first-stage HAARP (euphemistically named High frequency Active Auroral Research Program) equipment continues, although funding was frozen.

1994: ATPI is bought by E-Systems with a contract to build the biggest ionospheric heater in the world (HAARP).

1994: In the May/June 1994 issue of Microwave News, Bernard Eastlund suggests that “The HAARP project obviously looks a lot like the first step” toward the designs outlined in his patents.

1995: Raytheon buys E-Systems and old APTI patents. The technology is now hidden among thousands of patents within one of the largest defense contractor portfolios.

1995: Congress budgets $10 million for 1996 under “nuclear counterproliferation” efforts for HAARP project.

1995: Test of patent number 5,041,834 to generate an Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM), or a plasma layer in the atmosphere. The AIM is used like the ionosphere to reflect RF energy over great distances.

1995-1997: Public complaints accumulate across the US regarding unusual cloud formations and sudden increase in observable persistent jet contrails that appear unnaturally under dry atmospheric conditions. These observations are accompanied by complaints of biological specimens and web formations that appear to fall from the sky. Many instances of qualified lab analysis reveal high concentration of aluminum, barium and other elements that are consistent with DoD electromagnetic experiments.

1996: HAARP scientists test the earth-penetrating tomography applications by modulating the electroject at Extremely Low Frequencies (ELF)

1996: US Air Force publishes Weather As a Force Multiplier: Owning The Weather in 2025.

1997: US nationwide NEXRAD radar network is fully deployed.

1998: International Space Station (ISS): The first modular component of the International Space Station (ISS) was launched and is the current (in 2012) habitable artificial satellite in low Earth orbit following the Salyut, Almaz, Skylab and Mir. (1998 ISS mission consistent with same year increase in jet aerosol public observations and complaints) The stated function of the SSI is to provide an international space platform for research and experimentation in the fields of biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology (weather) and other fields.

1998: Projected date for fully-operating HAARP system.

2003 -The WMO (World Meteorolgical Organization) comments about the sudden increase in extreme weather events around the world.

2003: National Academy of Sciences report, “Fair Weather: Effective Partnerships in Weather and Climate Services” released to advise NOAA on approaches it should take to improve relationships with private sector.

2004: Tsunami readiness in the United States is strengthened after a magnitude 9.0 earthquake strikes in the Indian Ocean and tsunami waves kill over 230,000 people around the Indian Ocean basin. Congress passes the Tsunami Warning and Education Act authorizing NOAA to strengthen its tsunami detection, forecast, warning and mitigation programs.

2005: Hurricane Katrina makes landfall in southeast Louisiana on August 29, resulting in devastation and loss of life of historic proportions along the Gulf Coast. Katrina results in an estimated $125 billion in damage/costs — making it the most expensive natural disaster in U.S. history — and approximately 1,833 deaths — the highest U.S. total since the 1928 major hurricane in southern Florida.

Hurricane Rita hits the Texas-Louisiana border coastal region in September, creating significant storm surge and wind damage along the coast, and some inland flooding. Prior to landfall, Rita reached the third lowest pressure (897 mb) ever recorded in the Atlantic basin. Rita results in an estimated $16.0 billion in damage/costs and 119 deaths — mostly indirect.

Hurricane Wilma hits southwest Florida in October, resulting in strong, damaging winds and major flooding across southeastern Florida. Prior to landfall, as a Category 5 hurricane, Wilma sets a record for the lowest pressure (882 mb) ever recorded in the Atlantic basin. Wilma results in an estimated $16.0 billion in damages/costs and 35 deaths.

Overall, the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season set several records. There were 28 named storms (storms with sustained winds of at least 39 miles per hour). In addition, there were an unprecedented 14 hurricanes, of which seven were major hurricanes (Category 3 or better on the Saffir-Simpson Scale). Three category 5 storms (sustained winds of 156 miles per hour or more) formed in the Atlantic Basin for the first time in a single season (Katrina, Rita, and Wilma). Four major hurricanes and three tropical storms made landfall in the U.S., with an eighth storm (Ophelia) brushed brushing the North Carolina coast.

2006: Severe flooding occurs over portions of the Northeast in June due to several weeks of heavy rainfall, affecting six states and resulting in over $1 billion in damage/costs and at least 20 deaths.

2006-Now: Almost every country the world over is seeing increasingly frequent and extreme weather events, many of which have been record-breaking.

2007: For nearly two weeks in January, overnight temperatures over a good portion of California dipped into the 20′s, destroying numerous agricultural crops; with citrus, berry, and vegetable crops most affected. An estimated $14 billion in damage/costs are reported.

NWS activated its newest weather and climate supercomputers — IBM machines capable of processing 14 trillion calculations per second at maximum performance and ingest more than 240 million global observations daily. The new computers increased the computational might used for the nation’s climate and weather forecasts by 320 percent.

2008: The United States tsunami detection array is complete with 39 Dart stations positioned around the Pacific basin, western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea.

Hurricane Ike makes landfall in Texas, as the largest (in size) Atlantic hurricane on record, causing considerable storm surge in coastal Texas and significant wind and flooding damage in 10 other states. Estimated damage exceeds $27 billion. Ike results in 112 deaths.

The Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak of February 5-6 results in 57 fatalities in four states. It is the second largest February tornado outbreak since 1950 in terms of fatalities and the largest since May 31, 1985.

2009: Operation HAMP – Department of Homeland Security operation to Modify and Steer Hurricanes with Geoengineering Aerosols

2009: Drought conditions occurred during much of the year across parts of the Southwest, Great Plains, and southern Texas causing an estimated $5 billion in agricultural losses in numerous states. The largest agriculture losses occurred in Texas and California.

NWS completed implementation of the final phase of a nine-year, $180 million contract by installing the newest generation of IBM supercomputers for weather and climate prediction. The new supercomputers, based on IBM Power 575 Systems, are four times faster than the previous system, with the ability to make 69.7 trillion calculations per second. Higher computation speed allows meteorologists to rapidly refine and update severe weather forecasts as dangerous weather develops and threatens U.S. communities.

Devastating floods affect the southeast U.S., as copious moisture drawn into the region from the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico produced showers and thunderstorms from September 18-23. Rainfall amounts across the region totaled 5-7 inches, with locally higher amounts near 20 inches. The northern two-thirds of Georgia, Alabama, and southeastern Tennessee were hardest hit with the southeasterly low-level winds providing favorable upslope flow. Flash flood and areal flooding were widespread, with 11 fatalities were directly attributed to this flooding.

2010: Geoengineer, David Keith (AAAS Meeting) proposal to use jet aircraft to spray Sulfur dioxide and aluminum nano-particles into the atmosphere to reflect sunlight back into space.

2010: UN Convention on Biodiversity appears to ban any future efforts to “geoengineer” the planet. But did it? And why was the decision made at the UN’s biodiversity meeting in Nagoya, Japan, rather than at the following month’s climate conference in Mexico? The resolution is worded in a way that placed a moratorium on geoengineering only if it might affect biodiversity. The 193 signatories to the convention agreed to outlaw such geoengineering projects “until there is an adequate scientific basis on which to justify such activities and appropriate consideration of the associated risks for the environment and biodiversity and associated social, economic and cultural impacts”. The agreement exempts “small-scale scientific research studies”.

2011: Record-breaking disasters in the US with 10 separate weather, water and climate disasters with an economic loss of $1 billion or more. These included the Groundhog Day Blizzard of Jan 29-Feb 3, several devastating tornado outbreaks — including the one that produced an EF-5 tornado struck Joplin, Mo., which resulted in at least 160 deaths, making it the deadliest single tornado to strike the U.S. since modern tornado record keeping began in 1950 — and river flooding along the Mississippi, Missouri and Souris Rivers. Hurricane Irene makes landfall over coastal N.C. before moving northward along the Mid-Atlantic Coast and causing torrential rainfall and flooding across the Northeast. More than seven million homes and businesses lost power during the storm. Numerous tornadoes were also reported in several states further adding to the damage. Over $7.0 billion in damages/costs; and at least 45 deaths were reported. NWS launches a comprehensive initiative to build a Weather-Ready Nation to make America safer as communities across the country become increasingly vulnerable to severe weather events, such as tornado outbreaks, intense heat waves, flooding, hurricanes, and solar storms that threaten electrical and communication systems.

NWS began using a sophisticated forecast model that substantially improves predictions of space weather impacts on Earth. Better forecasts offer additional protection for people and the technology-based infrastructure we use daily. NWS began upgrading its network of Doppler radars throughout the nation with dual-polarization (Dual-Pol) capability, resulting in better estimation of heavy rainfall amounts in flooding events, improved hail detection in severe thunderstorms, and improved classification of precipitation types. Dual-Pol radar has the potential to improve forecasts and warnings and reduce the impact of hazardous weather on transportation. The upgrades are scheduled to be completed in early 2013.

2012: Celebrating 50 years of Success. A Compilation of highlights from the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology Rapid City.

Geoengineering Watch